The Christian religious organizations of the world mainly preach that there is the Old and New Covenant, but the Bible talks about several other covenants that God made with man. These agreements help us to understand the dealings God was having with man and the results that would occur. (present or future) A covenant is a binding agreement that is made by two or more persons or parties. God’s covenants were simple and direct.
The Mosaic Covenant: The covenant with Moses is the second of the theocratic covenants (pertaining to the rule of God) and is conditional. It is introduced by the conditional formula, “if you will indeed obey My voice…then you shall be a special treasure.” This covenant was given to the nation Israel so that those who believed God’s promise given to Abraham in the Abrahamic Covenant would know how to conduct themselves. The Mosaic Covenant in its entirely governs three areas of their lives:
the commandments governed their personal lives particularly as related to God
the judgments governed their social lives as they related to one another
the ordinances governed their religious lives so that the people would know how to approach God on the terms that He dictates
The Mosaic Covenant in no way replaced or set aside the Abrahamic Covenant. Its function is clearly set forth by Paul (Galatians 3:17-19) who points out that the law, the Mosaic Covenant, came 430 years after the Abrahamic Covenant. The Mosaic Covenant was added alongside the Abrahamic Covenant so that the people of Israel would know how to conduct their lives until “the seed” the Anointed One, comes and makes the complete and perfect sacrifice, toward which the sacrifices of the Mosaic Covenant only point. ( It’s important to note that this is what Paul was taking about when he said, the law was done away. It was the ordinances of sacrifices that Christ did away with…)
The Mosaic Covenant was never given so that by keeping it people could be saved, but so that they might realize that they cannot do what God wants them to do even when God writes it down on tablets of stone. We are saved by grace, but God’s Spirit helps us to overcome our weaknesses and sins. Its only through Jesus that God’s Spirit is offered!